The SSA has what is called a Listing of Impairments, often referred to as the Blue Book.

The Blue Book lists a number of conditions that could make you eligible for disability benefits. These conditions are recognized as disabilites by the SSA for the purpose of receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

Conditions Recognized as Disabilities by the Social Security Administration According to the Blue Book:

Musculoskeletal system which can include spinal disorders and chronic pain from joint disorders, and amputations

Impaired sight, hearing, or speech

Respiratory illnesses including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma

Cardiovascular disease including congenital heart disease and heart failure

Digestive system disorders including bowel or liver disorders

Renal failure and chronic kidney disease

Anemic conditions and blood disorders, including hemophilia and bone marrow failure

Burns to the skin as well as skin conditions that cause dryness and scaling

Diabetes, thyroid problems, and other endocrine disorders

Down syndrome and other congenital disorders affecting multiple body systems

Neurological disorders caused by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease as well as disorders caused traumatic brain injury

Mental health conditions which include bipolar disorder, dementia, depression, intellectual disabilities and schizophrenia

Cancer

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), lupus, arthritis, and other immune system diseases.